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<h1><u>Week 12: Wildcard Week</u></h1>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis33.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Picture of me operating the machine</i>
</div>
<h1>5-Axis Milling</h1>
<p>The 5-Axis machine that we have here at the Wheaton College (MA) Fab Lab is a 5-Axis
CNC built on rigid ShopBot modules that have extended height made for good 5-axis capabilities.
The work area is 34” X 34” X 24” (860mm X 860mm X 610mm). While the machine does not have the
sufficient amount of rigidity to machine aluminum or hardwood, it works wonderfully with materials
like urethane foams and soft woods. In this exercise we were recommended to use Fusion 360 as it is
a very nice entry-level CAM/CAD device for getting started with working with 5-Axis.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis1.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>The 5-axis machine in our shop</i>
</div>
<p>From the picture below you can see a diagram of the 5 different Axes on the machine. We have the x
coordinate, which operates by using the moving table at the base, the y coordinate, which operates by
the using the extruded beam, and a z axis, which moves the head of the machine up and down. Those components
make up the 3-axis segments of the machine, but we have two mre degrees of freedom. The a and b axes use
alphaStep DG motors located in the head and wrist of the machine in order to give it more free range of
motion. Our machine ia a head-head 5-axis meaning both a and b are located in the head, some appliances
do a and b operations in the base of the machine.</p>
<p>Extended above the machine you can see the pneumatic assist air cylinder which helps keep the head of the
machine from plummeting into the bed especially when any power is shut off.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis2.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Layout of machine</i>
</div>
<p>Below is the air compressor that is connected to the pneumatic assist air cylinder, before cutting anything we
need to make sure that the switch is turned on. The air compressor is actually very loud and turns on at random
moments which can be quite jarring </p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis3.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Air compressor for pneumatic assist air cylinder</i>
</div>
<p>When do pre-check, we need to make sure that the two dials below are are above zero and working properly.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis4.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>First valve thats needs to be checked</i>
</div>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis5.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Second valve that needs to be checked</i>
</div>
<p>Before running any cut on the 5-axis, we must run a warm up for the spindle. Before we do this we need to
open go to “tools” and open the spindle rpm control window. We must have this box open at all times during
operation in order for the software to communicate with the VFD and change RPM. If the box is open the RPM
will remain constant through an entire cut.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis28.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Starting command to run warm up sequence</i>
</div>
<p>Below you can see the spindle speed test that we are running. This warm up run the machine at multiple rpm
settings for three minutes each. We were told that if the 5-axis has been idle for more than four hours that
it would probably be good to run the test again.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis27.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Shopbot menu</i>
</div>
<p>Below here you can see the RPM window that must be open during all operations at the bottom of the screen</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis8.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>RPM menu that needs to be open</i>
</div>
<p>Below we have the control to start the spindle for the 5-axis. To start, when we run any file, we must first execute our code, then a menu will open up asking if you
want to start the operation. Before hitting "ok" in that menu, we must push down the start button in order to get the spindle spinning. An emergency stop is located on
this device as well, but since it will stop the power, I recommend hitting the space bar in order to stop any file. Hitting the space bar will also allow you to continue the file
again if you so choose.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis34.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Contol to start up and stop the spindle for the 5-axis</i>
</div>
<p>To change and zero the values of x, y, and z we can type "k" on the keyboard to obtain manual control. when this is open, you can press "page up" and "page down", in order to
move the head either up or down, or you you can use the arrow keys to change the x and y coordinates.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis25.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<img src="Images\5axis25.JPG" class="image" width="30%">
<i>Controls to manually move and zero the machine</i>
</div>
<p>Just like the Axiom machine we have in our shop, the 5-axis has an automatic zeroing device for the z axis. When initiated, the head will come down once at a lower
speed, and then again at a higher speed in order to zero the value.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis6.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Tool one that zeros the z axis</i>
</div>
<p>The 5-axis also has another device that allows you to calibarte the angle of a and b, but we did not touch this as it was already set up for use.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis7.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Second tool is for callibration of a and b</i>
</div>
<h1>Fusion 360 CAD/CAM</h1>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis10.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Model the will be milled with the stock around it</i>
</div>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis10.PNG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Flow in the manufacturing menu</i>
</div>
<p>Starting out in Fusion 360, I wanted to make a model that would be able to utlize the 5-axis capabilties of our mill. The shape designed below was made
using the free form option in the design menu, I did this as we would be using the flow option in the manufacturing menu which works quite well with these kinds of shapes,
but more on that in a little bit.</p>
<p>Below you can see the manufacturing menu with options for 2D, 3D, drilling, and multi-axis functionalities. The modules that we ended up using were in
the 3D menu, as options like flow and steep and shallow, which are primarily used for 3-axis milling, have 5-axis capabilties built in.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis11.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>All the axis options in manufacturing</i>
</div>
<p>Here is where flow and steep and shallow are located in the 3-axis menu.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis17.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<img src="Images\5axis10.png" class="image" width="50%">
<i>Flow in the manufacturing menu</i>
</div>
<p>Here are the options in the multi-axis menu. Swarf primarily cuts an object with the side of the bit and the rotary option require a rotary so we did not end up using these
options. Theoretically, Multi-axis contour would have worked, but we decided to use flow instead.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis17.jpg" class="image" width="30%">
<i>The options under the multi-axis menu</i>
</div>
<p>We used a bit with:</p>
<ul>
<li>Diameter = 1/4in</li>
<li>Overall Length = 3.5 in</li>
<li>Length below holder = 1.75in</li>
<li>Shoulder length = 1.25in</li>
<li>Flute length = 1in</li>
</ul>
<p>Below you can see a visualization of the bit in fusion 360. The holder was a lot small but I didn't really now how to change that.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis12.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Parameters for the bit that we are using</i>
......@@ -203,16 +287,26 @@ p.agreement {
<i>What the bit looks like in fusion</i>
</div>
<p>Before cutting any foam with flow, we needed to do a rough cut of our object. We decided that the best way to do this, after watching a copius amount
of tutorials online, was to do an adaptive clearing cut, pocket clearing also works, at different angles so that the collet of the holder does not run into
any stock.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis14.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Editing the bottom hight of where we want to cut</i>
</div>
<p>When setting up an adptive clearing cut, the main things to adjust to keep time down is optimal load, which is basically just the stepover,
and roughing stepdown. We were working with foam so we could take some liberties while working to keep the time down. </p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis15.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Roughing stepdown and Optimal load, which determins stepover are important here</i>
</div>
<p>If we go to the geometry section when setting up an adaptive clearing cut, we can reorientate the head of of our bit so that we can cut from the sides. We ended up
having some problems with this and generally geting muti-axis capabilties to work in any way intended, but again I'll bring this back up later.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis16.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Changing orientation of adaptive cut</i>
......@@ -223,6 +317,8 @@ p.agreement {
<i>Simulation of adaptive cut</i>
</div>
<p>Next we applied a flow cut to each of our surfaces in order to get a nice smooth design.</p>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis19.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>Flow cut on top surface of model</i>
......@@ -234,12 +330,12 @@ p.agreement {
</div>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis23.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<img src="Images\5axis23.JPG" class="image" width="40%">
<i>Make sure that flow is set to multi-axis</i>
</div>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis24.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<img src="Images\5axis24.JPG" class="image" width="40%">
<i>Make sure to increse the amount of passes in the settings</i>
</div>
......@@ -263,6 +359,11 @@ p.agreement {
<i>The first cut that only used 3-axis worked fine</i>
</div>
<video class="image" controls autoplay loop>
<source src="5axisVideo2.mp4" type="video/mp4" width="70%">
Your browser does not support the video tag.
</video>
<div class="img-with-text">
<img src="Images\5axis18.JPG" class="image" width="60%">
<i>The toolpath that is given to us in fusion 360 be post</i>
......@@ -278,6 +379,18 @@ p.agreement {
<i>What it looked like after adaptive cut was finished</i>
</div>
<video class="image" controls autoplay loop>
<source src="5axisVideo1.mp4" type="video/mp4" width="70%">
Your browser does not support the video tag.
</video>
<video class="image" controls autoplay loop>
<source src="5axisVideo3.mp4" type="video/mp4" width="70%">
Your browser does not support the video tag.
</video>
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