Commit 52426fe7 authored by Philip Hozier's avatar Philip Hozier
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---
title: Week-11
title: Week 11
description: Week 11 - Moulding + Casting
author: Philip Hozier
type: docs
......@@ -42,7 +42,13 @@ Theory and use of things i learnt from this assignment:
## Lessons to take away
---
Getting the smallest detail wrong in the procedure of casting and moulding, and weeks of work can be ruined. You'll only know at the end.
- Getting the smallest detail wrong in the procedure of casting and moulding, and weeks of work can be ruined. You'll only know at the end.
- Moulding and Casting generates a lot of waste (not necessarily of nice things for the environment or your health). The proportion is greater the smaller the run of castings you do.
- Know your materials and how they act!
- It's messy!!
---
#### Moulding + Casting Risk Assessment
......@@ -132,7 +138,7 @@ To work out the volume of material needed to be mixed:
- Once cured you are safe to handle the casting without any problems. Any adjustments you need to make to the casting material such as sanding, drilling or painting can be done now.
--
---
## Shopbot Machine (3D milling)
---
For 2D limitations, Operating guide, Safety instructions etc:
......@@ -271,7 +277,7 @@ This is a 3-way or 3 phase method of casting.
- Cast the mould from this negative.
- Final casting from the mould that contains the original model's negative.
My original idea when i first heard of the assignment was to create a 'breakaway' glass bottle like the ones used in practical effects for film and TV. Part of the process would be done using a 'rotary casting' machine like [student from Canada - machine week].
My original idea when i first heard of the assignment was to create a 'breakaway' glass bottle like the ones used in practical effects for film and TV. Part of the process would be done using a 'rotary casting' machine like [Paul Cairns](http://fabacademy.org/2021/labs/vancouver/students/paul-cairns/assignments/12-molding-and-casting/ "Paul Cairns -2021 Vancouver") (2021 student from Vancouver - Moulding + Casting week).
Milling the outer profile of a bottle in a 2 part mould, i would add a small amount of material into the mould and then spin it in the casting machine to create a seamless hollow bottle. But without a rotary casting machine being accessible, i then change the idea to creating half a bottle in 2 parts (outer profile and inner profile). From which i would cast a half bottle twice and fix them together somehow.
......@@ -295,6 +301,8 @@ But the special effects company in Amsterdam had no 'Smooth-on Smash Plastic' in
- **Design**
![Individual Assignment](../week11/fusion-model.jpg "Fusion model")
- *Positive model*
So I designed the hammer to have similar proportions to a real life size hammer. The wax block was too small to make even one side of a life sized hammer, so i had to scale it down to fit the measurement boundaries.
......@@ -535,6 +543,14 @@ My moulding + casting skills are a little rusty maybe, but its always good to p
Although a good way to introduce Z-axis milling into an assignment, its not a technique i would use very often to make a mould for casting. There are better techniques that allow you to work the moulds easier for a better resolution than milling.
![Individual Assignment](../week11/25-HALVE-DOLFIJN.jpg "Milled wax")
Part of a life size dolphin I helped make with [Unreal.eu](https://unreal.eu/ "Unreal.eu"). Painted silicone skin over a fibre glass composite shell. Used for camera closeups.
From a professional TV + Film perspective, 3 axis milling wouldn't have been able to make a mould for something as big as above. It would also be difficult to make the multiple parts of the mould that were needed to prevent undercutting. The settings and the method we used wouldn't have provided the definition and fine detail needed in the final casting (finer settings and methods might be able to solve this).
So I can only see this method being used for reproducing small simple pieces in a professional setting.
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## FILES
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......@@ -581,7 +581,7 @@ When trying the serial communication test program I came up against these proble
## CONCLUSION
---
This is probably the most crucial subject learn for my final project. One that, having some struggles to understand at the beginning, my knowledge needs to be raised from beginner to master i f i 'm to succeed. I 'm confident in the programming side but less so with the electronics and getting the computer system interaction going.
This is probably the most crucial subject to learn for my final project. One that, having some struggles to understand at the beginning, my knowledge needs to be raised from beginner to master i f i 'm to succeed. I 'm confident in the programming side but less so with the electronics and getting the computer system interaction going.
---
## FILES
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......@@ -42,16 +42,43 @@ What technology that is out there already can be divided into several paths:
### Current wearable technology
- Smart Watches + 'Fitbit' type wearables
- **Smart Watches + 'Fitbit' type wearables**
'Wearable' technology has seen a boom in recent years, from simple GPS tracking to now include a range of health oriented sensors. or as part of a set of features and technology in these type of wearable gadgets,
'Wearable' technology has seen a boom in recent years, from simple GPS tracking to now include a range of health oriented sensors. or as part of a set of features and technology in these type of wearable gadgets:
- Fitness trackers
- **Fitness trackers**
Fitness trackers are wearable technology that measure some sort of exercise action or physiological action to it. In it's simplest form it can be a pedometer with a connection to your smart phone to record your progress. In its advanced forms it can have GPS tracking, heart rate and oxygen saturation sensors and advanced motion sensors to determined what type of activity you're doing.
Fitness trackers are wearable technology that measure some sort of exercise action or physiological action to it. In it's simplest form it can be a pedometer with a connection to your smart phone to record your progress. In its advanced forms it can have GPS tracking, heart rate monitor, oxygen saturation sensors and advanced motion sensors to determined what type of activity you're doing.
- Smart Watches
-
- **Smart Watches**
Smart watches are slightly different to fitness trackers as they have more functions and features. Much more like a mini version of a personal computer on your wrist it can do more that is not related to fitness tracking or sensor monitoring. But for the fitness tracking and sensor monitoring they share the same basic electrical components as the Fitness trackers and similar features for expressing the data they collect.
- **Sensors used**:
Any typical fitness band or smartwatch can come with up to 16 sensors inside, depending on the price. Some products have an IDK to develop new ways of using these sensors. E.g. [FITBIT IDK](https://dev.fitbit.com/build/guides/sensors/ "Fitbit IDK")
|**SENSOR**| **DESCRIPTION**|
|---|---|
|**Barometer**|A Barometer is used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure and forecast short term changes in the weather.|
|**Gyroscope**|The Gyroscope sensor measures the device's angular velocity along 3 orthogonal axes (X, Y and Z).|
|**Heart Rate (ECG)**|The Heart Rate sensor measures a person’s heart rate through the electrodes on the wearable in 'Beats per minute'.|
|**Orientation**|An Orientation sensor measures the orientation of a device relative to an orthogonal coordinate frame.|
|**Ambient light sensor**|Most fitness trackers and smartwatches come with an ambient light sensor. It’s primary job is to tweak the brightness of the display as per surrounding light. This also helps in saving battery life.|
|**3 axis accelerometer** |3 axis accelerometer is the most common sensor that you will find inside a wearable. This sensor can track forward and backward movement, sense gravity and determine body’s orientation, position and also rate of speed change.|
|**Altimeter**|Altimeter simply detects changes in height. It helps detect whether you are climbing stairs or going down a slope and accordingly helps in measuring calorie count.
|**Optical heart rate**|Almost every fitness tracker comes with an optical heart rate sensor. It’s job is to calculate your heart beats per minute. The sensor uses light to check the speed of blood flow on the wrist. When the heart beats, blood moves quickly inside the artery thus less light is reflected back to the sensor and is detected as a heart beat.|
|**SpO2 monitor**|The colour of blood is examined by the sensor to understand the oxygen levels present in it. As Fitbit explains, “Deoxygenated blood, which is returned to your lungs via your veins, is a slightly darker red color than the fully oxygenated blood in your arteries. The sensors measure the relative reflection of red and infrared light from your blood via your wrist, and seeing how it varies as your heart beats, the device estimates your SpO2 value.”|
|**Bioimpedance** |A bioimpedance sensor measures the resistance that your skin is offering to a small amount of electricity. The battery charger electrodes in the fitness tracker deliver a very small amount of current to measure sleep, heart rate, respiration rate, water level and more.|
|**Proximity sensor** |Proximity sensor simply lets the device know that you are near the device and wants to use it. If you are not wearing the fitness tracker, this sensor enables the device to sleep and save battery when not in use. It is mostly used to turn on or off the display screen.|
|**Compass** |A compass helps Map applications to run on a smartwatch and also gives the device a sense of direction.|
|**Gesture sensors** |Gesture sensors can instruct the smartwatch to do certain activity when the hand is moved in a certain way. For example, if a wrist is flicked twice, the call will be disconnected or when the hand is moved in circles the stopwatch will start. Detecting these pre-fed motion is the job of gesture sensors.|
|**UV sensor** |Some smartwatches also offer whether the sunlight outdoors is harmful or not. This is detected by the UV sensor which detects the UV radiation when you step outside.|
|**Magnetometer**|A magnetometer works along with the GPS and compass to determine the exact coordinates of your location.|
|**Electrodermal activity** |Electrodermal activity or EDA sensor is a new addition to wearables. It measures stress along with a heart rate tracker, ECG and skin temperature sensor. It detects small electrical changes in the sweat level of your skin and helps you manage your stress.|
|**Skin temperature**|Skin temperature sensor detects slight changes in temperature to understand whether you are going to get fever. It also helps detect the start of menstrual cycle.|
A very good article to read about sensors and what information they can collect: [Sensors of Smart Devices in the Internet of Everything (IoE) Era: Big Opportunities and Massive Doubts -2019](https://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2019/6514520/ "Sensors of Smart Devices in the Internet of Everything (IoE) Era: Big Opportunities and Massive Doubts")
### Direct solution
......@@ -94,18 +121,15 @@ Body temperature that can be used to assess health as well as emotional reaction
With 16 data streams to play around with, there are infinite possibilities when it comes to creating projects with EmotiBit.
Data includes:
PPG (3-wavelength) that can derive heart rate, heart rate variability, respiration, oxygen saturation, hydration and (we believe) much more!
EDA / GSR (electrodermal activity / galvanic skin response) reflecting sympathetic nervous system responses that are driven by cognitive and emotional arousal.
9-axis IMU (accel, gyro, mag) that can derive movements, activity, gesture, rotation, and cardinal direction.
Body temperature that can be used to assess health as well as emotional reactions.
#1
- [Mentech - HUME](https://www.mentechinnovation.eu "Mentech Innovation")
![Mentech - HUME](../research/HUME-hero.jpg "Mentech - HUME")
Mentech Innovation was founded by Erwin Meinders to give a voice to vulnerable people with misunderstood behaviour. As a volunteer at Severinus, a care organization for people with intellectual disabilities, he has experienced that people with a complex care need are often insufficiently able to express their emotions.
Mentech Innovation was founded by Erwin Meinders to give a voice to vulnerable people with misunderstood behaviour. As a volunteer at Severinus, a care organization for people with intellectual disabilities, he experienced people with a need for complex care but are often insufficiently able to express their emotions.
> “His buddy Patrick, a man with a severe intellectual disability, cannot talk. One day his wringing shoes caused pain and discomfort, but this only became clear when his shoes were taken off after a lot of stress. This inspired Erwin to develop a smart sensor system that can recognize stress and emotions. “
Patrick is no exception. Many people with an intellectual disability or dementia are often unable to express their emotions or feelings.
HUME - The HUME is an emotion recognition platform based on sensors, behavioural models and machine learning. The sensors measure physiological characteristics such as heart rate, skin conduction and activity. This information is converted into usable information in the HUME database by means of behavioural models.
......@@ -118,8 +118,8 @@ A continuously updated page of terms and glossary.
| WORD | Description |
| ----------- | ----------- |
| **SPRUE** | A sprue is the vertical passage through which liquid material is introduced into a mold and it is a large diameter channel through which the material enters the mold. It connects pouring basin to the runner. In many cases it controls the flow of material into the mold. During casting or moulding, the material in the sprue will solidify and need to be removed from the finished part. It is usually tapered downwards to minimize turbulence and formation of air bubbles.|
| **FLASHING** | Flashing is excess material attached to a moulded, forged, or cast product, which must usually be removed. This is typically caused by leakage of the material between the two surfaces of a mold (beginning along the parting line[1]) or between the base material and the mold in the case of overmoulding.|
| **PARTING LINE** | A parting line, in industrial casting of molds, is the border line in which draft angles change direction. That is, it is the dividing line that splits the core and cavity halves of a molded part. It is sometimes a starting point for the mold parting surface |
| **FLASHING** | Flashing is excess material attached to a moulded, forged, or cast product, which must usually be removed. This is typically caused by leakage of the material between the two surfaces of a mold (beginning along the parting line[1]) or between the base material and the mold in the case of over moulding.|
| **PARTING LINE** | A parting line, in industrial casting of moulds, is the border line in which draft angles change direction. That is, it is the dividing line that splits the core and cavity halves of a moulded part. It is sometimes a starting point for the mold parting surface |
| ** ** | |
| ** ** | |
| ** ** | |
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